My Shower PhD (the historical past of hygiene habits) – Episode 3

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My Shower PhD (the historical past of hygiene habits) - Episode 3


greetings fellow showers and showeree's I'm DrSteph and I did my PhD on a history of showers in my thesis I reveal how showers an everyday objectthat people use to clean and preen their bodies are part of big picture systems that govern ourlives today we're going to discover the history of private showers in private spaces and the ideaof showering as an essential daily activity while showering is something many of us take for grantedit has a fascinating forgotten history connected to governing populations through changingideas of Health housing class sex and family unit showers are a familiar part of thebathroom landscape however as we discussed in episodes 1 and two the earliest manufacturedshowers were not the private activity they are.

Today the first warm water hygiene showerswere for groups such as soldiers miners or prisoners and were designed so that the showercould be watched by using the ideas of French philosopher Michel Foucault to explore historywe can see how the shower became a thinkable thing initially to cure Mania then to promotepopulation health and then eventually an actor in a daily activity we carry out as part of ourprivate lives in this episode we will explore a period of radical change in the design anduse of the shower that was the product of changing ideas regarding population healthclass gender and warm water during the late 19th and early 20th century which led to thecreation of the private shower within private bathrooms today we shower to wash howeveras discussed in episode 1 cold water poured.

Unexpectedly and for extended periods of timeonto the head was an important therapy to treat Mania in the early 1800s pouring water overthe body started as a medical practice from the Forgotten science of hydropathy which used waterto treat a range of ailments hydropathists made substantial claims for the therapeutic effects ofwater while it might seem strange to us now the general population avoided drinking and washingwith water in the early 1800s Physicians such as Claridge in 1842 argued that by drinking water andwashing with cold water we could ward off disease and even the signs of aging to one accustomed tohydropathy it is exceedingly painful to see the numbers of old and young who pass him in thestreets at every turn with stiffened joints a dull eye thickness of breathing an unnaturaltendency to corpulency wrinkles baldness bad.

Sight and sallowness of complexion these failingsclearly indicate an habitual distaste for water and the Observer regrets the total ignorancewhich prevails as to the fact that in many of these cases es the mere drinking plentifully ofwater and washing of the body at least once a day would relieve these individuals of their diseasesnay more if they had always been accustomed to this element it might have warded those diseasesoff all together people were encouraged to learn about and use hydropathy within their own homesfor example Mrs smedley's 1873 ladies Manual of practical hydropathy suggests cold water douchesfor stimulating and strengthening and to treat rheumatism and Hunters 1878 hydropathy forhome use which claimed douches could improve circulation and Rouse dormant energies the 1800swere a time of great change in medical thought in.

His book birth of the clinic Foucault explainedhow changes in technology such as the development of microscopes meant that at this time diseasebecame connected to the visible structures of the body rather than ethereal things suchas humors Vapors or sins as such the focus of diagnosis and treatment shifted to locatingdisease within a body part this is a practice that continues to dominate Western medicinetoday practitioners of hydropathy describe the therapeutic operations of water as many andvaried and numerous ways of applying water to the body emerged the mechanism by which water hadan effect was debated some suggested it had an effect on inflammation an idea we maintain todaywhen we put ice on an injury While others such as Claridge thought the cold water douche, beingthe French word used at the time for shower,.

Could move humors and have a strengthening effectthe douche but of all the means employed is the most powerful in moving the bad humors anddisturbing them from the position which they may have occupied for years they're also usedin a great number of chronic diseases the douche corrects the weakness which the skin may havecontracted in the process of sweating and also fortifies it it hardens the body and rendersit capable of supporting all variations in the atmosphere it exercises a powerful action uponthe muscles and nervous system by the reaction which it provokes in addition to the generaleffects that cold water was proposed to have hydropathists proposed that water could bedirected at specific sites of the Body for a specific medical complaint such as water poured onthe head for Mania or directed at the abdomen for.

Digestive issues Claridge suggested pouring waterover the body could have a general strengthening effect on the skin counteracting the supposedweakening effect of sweating as discussed in episode two the skin was initially thought to bea respiratory organ which prompted an interest in cleanliness to clean the pores however towards theend of the 1800s this idea was abandoned in favor of washing the skin with warm water to preventcontagious diseases despite the wide range of proposed benefits the coldness of the hydropathicshower was considered dangerous to all but those in good health with strong constitutions and theidea of hydropathy fell out of fashion however the health-giving benefits of water were notforgotten and the luxury of the personal warm shower experienced first by touristsand travelers meant that the fall of water.

Continued while readers of Home hydropathy booksin good health with strong constitutions may have been able to benefit from cold water hydropathyin their own homes those who could afford it also had the option of hydropathic hot water treatmentssupplied by Nature in precolonial times indigenous populations made use of natural hot water springsfor health through colonization many of these natural resources were privatized and convertedinto commercial ventures in the 1800s in Aotearoa New Zealand Health seeking tourists who couldafford the travel and entry fees to privatized Springs could enjoy Nature's cure as well asso and the hot water therapeutic effects could be applied through a private shower or the airmassage douche the idea not entirely abandoned was that there were health-giving properties ofwarm water that could be extracted from these.

Natural Springs as discussed in episode two adiscourse of washing the skin for the benefit of cleanliness for confined populations suchas soldiers and prisoners was emerging in the late 1800s however showers that were producedfor hydropathy such as the aix massage douche were not designed for washing in today's terms itmight be a strange to take a hydropathic shower to wash one's skin as it would be today to takea pill to do the same however cleanliness was important and being dirty could exclude one fromgood Society what constitutes a gentleman of the principal qualifications two are absolutelynecessary there viz courtesy and honor and these may be possessed by all then comes mannersand education which qualify for good society and rank and wealth for those who seek to move intothe highest classes the characteristics fatal.

To the claim to be considered a gentlemanare impudence self-conceit falsity want of cleanliness and filthy language nothing in dressBeyond neatness and cleanliness is required from the mid 1800s private bathing rooms with showersfor washing in appeared in Barbers shops and hairdressers hotels and bathing establishments inAotearoa New Zealand it seems that showers within hairdressers and barber shops may have mademaintain some hydropathic connection with with advertisers providing baths cold hot shower andmedicated Vapor showers and hotels however were listed as home Comforts rather than therapeuticdevices Sigfried Giedion in his famous 1948 book mechanization takes command a contribution toAnonymous history proposes that this connection between showers bathrooms and hotel rooms hada significant influence on the proliferation of.

Private domestic showers and was the beginning ofthe democratization of the bathroom in the early 1900s in the USA in 1908 a compact bathroom wasprovided for every bedroom in one hotel rather than the typical shared bathroom on each floorand it was promoted with the catchphrase a room and a bath for a dollar and a half while thesmaller rooms had a shower bath stall Giedion argued that such Hotel bathrooms a cell and anappendage to the bedroom available to everyone at slight cost or approximately $25 in today'scurrency was fundamental to the emergence of bathrooms within private dwellings while hotwater showers and hotel rooms would lead the way in making showers accessible to everyone asthey still do to some degree today it would still take significant changes to make it possiblefor people to wash without the annoyances and.

Discomforts of heating and carrying water forthe shower within the private dwelling to really proliferate you might wonder why I chose to do myPhD about showers and whether a history of showers really matters but what I am really interestedin is how and why the typical shower unit with a little tray that you step over and a wee boxshaped unit to stand in became the dominant shower design in private dwellings in my workas an occupational therapist I've learned that this style of shower is very inconvenient formany people some people find them impossible to get into and others find them very dangerous tostand in they're far too small for anybody to help you in so why is the shower the way it is it'simportant to re reveal the history of shower units in private homes since as Langon Winner in his1980 article do artifacts have politics explained.

Once the structure of a technology becomesestablished flexibility vanishes and the politics of exclusion or inclusion that the object producesendures he wrote consciously or not deliberately or inadvertently societies choose structures fortechnologies that influence how people are going to work communicate travel consume and so forthover a very long time in the process by which structuring designs are made different people atdifferent situated and possess unequal degrees of power as well as unequal levels of awareness byfar the greatest latitude of choice exists the very first time a particular instrument systemor technique is introduced because choices tend to become strongly fixed in material equipmenteconomic investment and social habit the original flexibility vanishes for all practical purposesonce the initial commitments are made in that.

Sense technological innovation Innovations aresimilar to legislative Acts or political foundings that establish a framework for public order thatwill endure over many generations for that reason the same careful attention one would give to therules roles and relationships of politics must also be given to things such as the building ofHighways the creation of television networks and the tailoring of seemingly insignificant featureson new machines the issues that divide or unite people in society are settled not only in theinstitutions and practices of politics proper but also and less obviously intangible Arrangementsof Steel and concrete wires and transistors nuts and bolts one such technological Innovationinvolves the government of water within Urban developments who has control over water sourceswho maintains the dams and pipes that transport it.

Who regulates its safety perhaps adding chemicalsto it or billing for its use this demonstrates the politics of domestic water supply Osborne in hischapter security and vitality drains liberalism and Power in the 19th century from Foucaultand political reason liberalism neoliberalism and rationalities of government writes about theemergence of water as a public health technology namely the material presence of fast flowing waterin and through each private household to establish an indirect State intervention and sanitationwithin the private home historically carrying water was done by human and animal labor carryingwater from a well to a household was once a paid job even in large cities such as London howeverthe invention of pipes pumps and dams made this profession obsolete in New Zealand the municipalcorporations act of 1867 awarded local council's.

Authority over Public Water Supplies and gavethem the power to access the drainage sorry assess the drainage of any house or buildingwithin their borough and demand that houses be connected to sewers at the homeowner's expenseemerging at a time of liberal government the state's interest in the flow of water ended atthe door of the private dwelling at that time I will talk about the state's involvement in theprivate dwelling further in episode 7 however in relation to the government of water the 1800sproduced a naturalization in the space of the home as a domain sequestered from the direct impactof government with water coming to the door of the dwelling by the mid to late 1800s a marketfor private showers formed for those who could afford it patents for showers and shower bathssuch as those Illustrated in UK JH Hopkins Son.

Wholesale tin plater workers and japaners andthe USA's catalog G illustrating the plumbing and sanitary Department of the J A Iron Worksprovided the possibility of showering and private bathrooms with hot and cold water by the startof the 1900s hygiene showers were materializing in the bathrooms of the wealthy in Aotearoa NewZealand at this time private bathrooms and their fixtures were large luxurious and adorned to allowindividualization however the relatively low cost of the shower created the possibility of it beingmore widely available for example Groves' 1890 portable shower bath a barrel filled with eithercold or warm water pumped by hand to an angled shower Rose was a fairly low cost contraption thatcould reportedly be installed into family homes in Aotearoa New Zealand Young's shower bath waspain patented in 1903 with the claim that it is.

Now within the power of everyone to have a showerbath in his or her home while various forms of shower were available it is easy to forget theeffort involved with heating water at this time heating water in institutions such as prisonsArmy barracks and coal mines could be managed with large boilers however the labor involved inheating water for an individual showering at home made the idea questionable during the late 1800swater boilers for home use were emerging using the waste of stove pipes and chimneys various fuelssuch as kerosene or wood chips or electricity where it was available such water heaters couldbe connected directly to a shower head many of these were still time consuming and dirty theGegenstrom apparatus described by Gerard in 1894 was a novel and ingenious form of hot waterapparatus distinguished from other Showers of the.

Time by being by instantly warming any quantityof water to any temperature it was described in comparison to other water heaters at the timetime as being exceedingly economical producing no bad smell taste or noise and being safe thisdevice needed a supply of steam so I was thought to have limited application in private dwellingshowever within a short time similar devices were being patented and produced for use in privatehomes and Aotearoa New Zealand an electric hot water storage system for continuous Supply becameparticularly popular following its invention in 1909 as domestic electricity use was gainingpopularity as discussed in episode two the invention of shared shower rooms public bathshad been conceived as a way to stop the spread of disease such as cholera as the annoyances anddiscomforts felt by The Working Man especially of.

Washing at home at that time meant it seemed worthworthwhile to create large shared public bath and shower facilities however by the early 1900sthe comfort and convenience of an economical supply of hot water at home meant showering andprivate showers and private dwellings had become a possibility at this point we had the technologyto bring water to the house via pipes rather than water carriers and water heaters were developinghowever within private dwellings we still needed to work out how to keep the water off thefloor and draining away at first this problem was overcome by showers being installed overbaths a variety of shower bath designs emerged at this time including needle or skeleton bathsin which water sprayed out of pipes at various Heights from a cage-like structure over a smallbath in 1908 the same year the room in the bath.

For a dollar and a half was promoted the majorityof baths and private houses in the US were full tub baths with which an overhead shower or doucheis often combined however Gerhard proposed that it was possible to have a shower where tubs areentirely abolished in private houses although he maintained that the shower without a bath wasbest suited to public spaces rather than private dwellings this is Gerhard's rain bath compartmentwhile it may look like a fairly typical shower to us now in 1894 Gerhard had to convince peoplethat his new design of shower bath where the bath had been shrunk down to what we wouldNow call a shower tray had advantages over ordinary bars Gerhard proposed that his novelrain bath compartment was superior to the usual form of bathtubs due to the reduced cost ofconstruction and low running and maintenance.

Expenses he explained there was no time lost inemptying or cleaning after each use and it took less time to wash he claimed that the shower wasmore hygienic than the bath since the body of a person using a rain bath does not come in contactwith boiled water and it was more stimulating and refreshing furthermore it used less water toachieve cleanliness provided greater privacy could be used in winter or summer and the dangerof spreading disease was reduced he noted that the angle of the shower head in his design was muchmore agreeable to the bather they could stand erect and had control over whether or not thehead was wetted in terms of material development the rainbath compartment design is an importantrupture in the form of showers within the private dwelling the idea of a shower as a single cellor compartment within a bath entirely abolished.

Within a private dwelling was so novel that itwould seem Gerhard himself struggled to think if such a shift was thinkable what wouldeventually be called a shower tray in the rain bath compartment was still considered a bathhowever it was now simply a recess in the floor so small that one may only stand rather than reclineand soak Gerhard did not see his invention as a replacement for showers over standard baths withwithin private dwellings and he maintained that shower baths were best in low cost Collectivehousing such as tenement buildings I am firmly convinced Gerhard wrote that the rain or spraybath offers many advantages for tenement houses it is not necessary to provide each tenementwith such a bath the individual bathtubs should be abolished and instead a few simple andinexpensive clean and inviting spray bars should.

Be erected in a well-lighted corner of a basementand kept under the control of a janitor despite Gerhard's reservations by the 1920s the rain bathshower now divorced from the bath was no longer a novelty and the shower finally called the showermaterialized in private dwellings such shower units were a feature of the bathroom and a cheapinvestment in the material capital of the dwelling in an article a return for capital in 1934 theyclaimed Modern Electric and Gas appliances play an important part in the convenience and comfort ofthe occupants of the house hot water services are cheap to install and most efficient and economicalin operation a separate shower box is possible at small expense in almost any bathroom any housecan be so modernized that present objectionable features are eliminated and the propertymade a better place to live and more revenue.

Producing in the 1920s the idea of home economicsas a science and a practice was emerging this was a shift away from ornate bathrooms of thewealthy as the idea to a rationale to simplify the paraphernalia of existence to eliminateuseless tasks and trapping and to arrange the remaining Necessities into an order orderlyscheme of household life Massey in 1923 employing an home economics discourse suggested a showermay be built into a recess having a dished floor with a door or curtain hung to prevent water fromsplashing into the bathroom however the the tray is distinguished from a bath in terms of economytaking minimal amount of material to construct and capturing only a minimum amount of water forthe briefest moments before draining away while Gerhard had included a seat within the shower itwas no longer seen as necessary within the private.

Bathroom as discussed in episode 2 shower roomshad been designed for use in Collective spaces is from the mid 1800s however it took over 50 yearsfor the technological developments necessary for showering and a private dwelling to becomesufficiently comfortable and convenient to be used by an individual at home the rain showerthe shower of choice as an economical space for an upright individual body Shrunk the bathdown to a small tray that needed to be stepped into and stood Within while showering waspossible historically houses did not have bathrooms so how were we convinced that weshould have bathrooms where showers could even be installed how did they end up being in allhouses and not just in the homes of the Rich and Famous as I mentioned previously the developmentof State involvement in bringing fast flowing.

Water to and from private dwellings wasrevolutionary creating a water or hydraulic city as Osborne stated this hydraulic City wouldbring water to houses and flush it away like the arteries and veins of a single body Hoagland inthe bathroom a social history of cleanliness and a body explains how the profession of SanitaryEngineering came to connect water engineering and health at this time which then led to thecreation of state boards of Health concerned with policing water quality and Sewer gaseshowever importantly people's homes remained as a private domain at this time while the cityGovernors might insist that water come and go from the house the limits of government or howmuch of some responsibility the state has in the private space of the home and the private Actof showering was limited at this time although.

A liberal government of drains may have ended atthe boundary of the priv ate dwelling an interest in population health and the activities ofthe population within the home remained a discourse of Sanitation encouraged enterprisingproperty developers to connect the hydraulic City to the dwelling from the late 1800s Plumbing orSanitary Engineering texts appeared in the late 1800s to promote the possibilities and limitthe dangers of running water through a house while these texts were typically directed towardsplumbers Mrs HM Plunket's 1884 text women plumbers and doctors or or household sanitation extendedthe discourse to include Women Within Plunket's manual sanitation connected proper Plumbingto gains and property value and in personal health and strength while inadequate Plumbingwas associated with the dangers of numerous.

Diseases sanitary Engineers induced thehomeowner to invest in plumbing Plunket proposed that woman whose Destiny it is toremain a large share of the time at home and whose divinely appointed Mission it is to guidethe house meant they had a greater interest in preventative medicine and household hygienetheir family and the entire nation depended on their knowledge of Sanitation andits connection to household plumbing Mrs Plunket wrote more than four years ago Drb w Richardson president of the British Medical Association said I want strongly to enforcethat it is the woman on whom full sanitary light requires to fall Health in the home isHealth everywhere elsewhere it has no Abiding Place I have been brought indeed by experienceto the conclusion that the whole future progress.

Of the senator movement rests for permanent andexecutive support on the women of the country as a devoted wife and mother they had a duty to beinvolved in house hunting and thus be informed of the necessities of a properly plumbed house thisincluded a separate water type bathroom sanitary Engineers advocated for a separate room forsanitary fixtures fixtures that they called the bathroom to prevent contamination of the dwellingwith no noxious gases and germs Barbara Penner who has written a fascinating book bathroom and anarticle titled the flexible heart of the home explains that sanitary fixtures and regulatedinternal Plumbing resulted in radical redesign of the architecture of dwellings to includea separate dedicated bathroom the connection between Health clean water and an investmentin household plumbing produced an inducement.

For homeowners to freely choose to installa bathroom without any government Authority insisting on it the private bathroom connectedto the hydraulic City illustrates what Osborne identified as a strategy of indirect governmentthat is of inducing cleanliness enhance good moral habits not through discipline but simplythrough the material presence of fast flowing water in and through each private householdhowever increasing design concerns regarding the dangers of the poor spreading diseaseand moral disorder meant that the idea of showering within private dwellings eventuallyextended beyond the bathrooms of enterprising homeowners while the hygiene of the workingclass had initially been connected to concerns regarding contagious disease resulting in theprovision of public baths concerns regarding.

Sex connected showers to the private bathroomsof the poor Foucault in his book The History of sexuality volume 1 argued that from the 1700sArchitecture emerged to operate on the sexuality of the poor largely based on the assumption thatthe sexuality existed that it was precocious active and ever present it is linked to middleand upper class worries that the right type of people might not be breeding enough while theless desirable might be breeding too much in New Zealand this politics of Housing and thegovernment of sex is evidence evident in the provision of houses within bathrooms via the 1905workers dwellings act workers dwellings built to the government specifications were for landlesslow income earners who could own the property after paying off all Associated costs includingland surveys subdivision and roading provided they.

Lived in it and maintained it in good order tothe satisfaction of the land board as an example of biopolitical smoothing of liberal governmentthe Act was intended to reduce the cost of living for the worker without burdening the capitalistwith the need to pay higher wages as a therapeutic operator a comfortable and convenient family homewas thought to improve the morals of the working class enticing the worker to remain at home withhis wife and family rather than seeking enjoyment and pleasure from less savor establishmentsRichard Seddon New Zealand's prime minister at the time stated I think that from anotherstandpoint we may consider the position of the worker under this bill from a health standpointthe more ventilation there is in a dwelling and the more comfortable a man has more Comfort aman has in his home the better work he's able.

To do and the more content he is under comfortablecircumstances a man has an inducement to remain at home I would say to the member for WellingtonCity Mr Aitken and others who often speak of men seeking Pleasures away from their own homesof an evening that if you give them comfortable homes where they may enjoy themselves with theirwives and families it is a good thing to do in addition to the smoothing the harsh effects ofcapitalism the idea that the sexuality of the working class is precocious active and everpresent justifies the state's involvement in providing a comfortable home that the worker mayenjoy with his wife and family alongside ensuring that workers returned home to their wives ratherthan seeking Pleasures elsewhere said and argued that proper sanitation and the provision ofbathrooms and workers' dwellings would save.

Lives I should like to ask how many there are ofthese homes where the workmen have a bathroom a very small percentage have a bathroom in theirhomes for use of themselves and family and I say it is almost indispensable to their health thatthere should be bathrooms attached to their homes in regard to the ere erection of tenements forworkers I would make it a standing law that no house should be allowed to be occupied unless ithad its bath and bathroom and proper sanitation Arrangements I believe we could save a goodmany lives if that was stipulated these workers dwellings were required to have bathrooms howeverthis was considered by some to be an extravagance providing shower baths was held up as the extremeof such the suggestion of communal bathrooms was however fairly quickly dismissed with the commentcommunism bathrooms were seen as an unnecessary.

Extravagance for workers in 1905 however by the1930s they would be established as an essential feature of a sanitary home Isaac and Olsenin their chapter of Brookes' at home in New Zealand houses history people examined sedan'slabor government housing scheme discussing the discourse of the slum and outlining how diseaseparticularly the influenza epidemic of 1919 town planning and state housing emerged in AotearoaNew Zealand they explain how concerns with the health of the population were connected at thistime to water and electricity Supply overcrowding and sanitation of private dwellings the GreatDepression highlighted the problem of housing for the economic health of the nation and in1937 the state conducted extensive housing surveys which aimed to identify the conditionof the nation's dwelling in particular those.

That should be demolished in the name of Healththese surveys closely connected the presence of a bathroom and bathing facilities to favorableprivate dwellings 80% of dwellings where repair was deemed impractical and therefore shouldbe demolished had no bathroom while 95% of satisfactory houses did in 1945 disease this timetuberculosis continued to connect the state to the government of dwellings in addition toconcerns regarding disease the idea of the nation's duty to provide dwellings forreturning soldiers and the growing view that dwellings should have modern amenitiesincluding hot water and bathing facilities promoted further debate about the role of thestate and govern governing private dwellings the housing Improvement Act of 1945 and theassociated Improvement regulations required all.

Dwellings existing and new to contain a bathroomand an approved shower or bath the state had now extended the reach of the hydraulic City intoprivate homes and State security in Aotearoa New Zealand was from that time connected to thepresence of a shower or bath within all private dwellings while the regulations stipulatedeither a shower or a bath the following year problems with the importing with importingraw materials needed to make enamel baths and the high cost of imported baths tipped theshower into favor state funded houses that had been built and which were otherwise readyto be tenanted could not be occupied due to a shortage of bars installation of a shower roominstead of a bathroom could however make such dwellings inhabitable by the 1970s showerswere being marketed as a feature of low cost.

Dwellings and a definite trend for showers inAotearoa New Zealand was established helped in part by the local invention of a low pressshower head mix a combination the Felton mix which is still in production today discoursesconnecting the state workers and bathrooms within private dwellings were possible within abiopolitical governmentality which is concerned with creating a milieu in which the healthof the worker and his family was made more favorable through an extension of the hydraulicCity into the private dwelling sanitation of the properly properly plumbed house the workerssexuality and the production of of separate baths or shower rooms within dwellings ofthe population ensured the security of the nation while the state may have been able toinsist that dwellings have a shower within.

The private home the population are dispersedand hidden from disciplining technologies that may march soldiers into the shower room so whatthen actually compelled us to choose to shower in the early 1900s experts emerged to promote theidea of hygiene as an essential everyday activity to promote Health in Aotearoa New Zealand in 1923Health Week experts advised the public that they must take responsibility for their own healththey advised that healthy habits needed to become part of daily living to have an effect HealthWeek will remind you of what personal hygiene means but personal hygiene must be a habit nota mere spasmodic occurrence synchronizing with a temporary Outburst of good resolve Physiciansadvocated for self-imposed discipline that would as Bresgan a Prussian Army doctor discussedin episode two had hoped produce the habit of.

Regular bathing to promote Health as such dailybathing or showering of possible was advised the health Commandments by Dr Thomas Darlingtonformer Commissioner of Health of New York City recommended one keep your mouth closed whenbreathing also when angry drink cold water with your meals also between meals three bathe dailya shower if possible as this example illustrates advice regarding personal Health Management issimilar to what Foucault calls anatomo-political discipline the focus is on daily conduct bathedaily shower of possible and the body is an object that can be surveilled to identify merits andfaults Dr Darlington advises neglect no portion of the body employ a physician to examine you atregular intervals and so watch for the beginnings of disease and buildup of resistance and pay someattention to his opinion and Direction however the.

Individual is no longer under the Gaze of thephysician prison guard attendant or comrade as they were in the psychiatrist's fall of wateror communal shower discussed in episodes 1 and two the individual is instead self- policingand only seeking the Council of the physician to periodically surveil the body and providehis opinion and Direction Martin and Waring in their article realizing governmentality pastoralpower government discourse and the re constitution of subjectivities argued that discourses connectfree rational citizens to State interests through something Foucault called pastoral power pastoralpower helps to shape us into particular types of people subjectivities that align with moredistant government aims quoting Foucault they state that pastoral power is distinctive in theway it attends to well-being and moral propriety.

Of both individuals and Community simultaneouslyand thus offers a tricky combination in the same political structures of individualizing techniquesand of totalization procedures experts employ discourses to Shepherd the choices that the goodresponsible subject should make thus connecting the free choices of individuals to the interestsof the nation this pastoral power is defined in part by the fact that this teaching must be adirection of daily conduct discipline of the subject becomes disciplined by the ethical subjectextending the conduct of conduct into the Unseen or private lives of citizens ensuring that one hasa properly plumbed house becomes the right choice for the citizen concerned with health a personalhygiene discourse then connects free citizens to an apparatus of Health in which expert adviceconducts the conduct of those willing and able.

To invest in their health through showering thegeneral health and hygiene benefits of private domestic showers were promoted in the early1900s a healing portable shower bath invented in Aotearoa New Zealand for domestic use claimsa range of Health giving benefits from daily showering daily use of the shower is describedin an investment in Vitality bringing forth fresh skins and complexions and a healthy body that isstrong and able to resist penetration from the environment hot cold or disease in addition tothe health benefits of the shower the design is promoted as been economical free of the elaboratedesigns of showers of the past thus making showering in the eyes of the advertisers possibleto everyone it was not only advertisers however that were promoting the benefits of showeringscientists at this time had also reconnected the.

Therapeutic operations of water to blood vesselsand nerves that psychiatrists of the 1800s had proposed they deemed the shower to be at least asimportant for neuro vascular training and physical and mental refreshment as for washing the skinthey also claimed evidence that showers created a superior nation positing that the poor bathinghabits of Russians at that time compared to the plentiful bathing facilities of the Japaneseattested to the fact that frequent washing was connected to the superiority of bathingNations and their great military and commercial achievement while showering may be connected toVitality a healthy body and a successful Nation a particular association with skin remained wardin his body the clean in his book The Clean body of modern history outlined how for women washingthe skin was particularly connected to appearance.

He States mark in campaigns often depicted womenas romantic or erotic objects sensuous or languid when they weren't coquettish or alluring andemphasizing soap emphasized soap's benefits for beauty's major assets the complexion dailyshowering provided an opportunity to use soap producing skin free of blemishes and luxurioushair for women while showering was associated with beauty as I mentioned in episode two inrelation to the Army's beauty shops showering also had a particular connection to strengthprior to and somewhat continuing into the 1920s the idea of women as the weaker sex beingunable to tolerate the shock of cold water could mean it was not advisable for them to use thecold water douche however strong upright women who participated in outdoor sports could benefitfrom washing in the shower to cool soothe and heal.

Their sunburnt skin in addition to being suitablefor strong women the shower was promoted as being able to produce strong women Young's patentportable shower bath meant the shower was no longer just for those with a strong Constitutionit was suitable for even the weak woman while the cold shower may be too much of a shock for thedelicate the tepid shower was suitable for the weak woman's body and was proposed to even makeit strong delicate women find the occasional tepid shower bath strengthening and refreshingNot only was Young's shower suitable even for women but it was for use in any room and could bemade to any temperature Young's patent shower was a vastly different character to the fall of waterfor women who would not sleep with their husbands discussed in episode one it was the antithesis ofcold shock and breaking of Wills rather than the.

Showeree being subjected to the shower they arethe showerer and control of the temperature and duration of the fall of water while showers couldbenefit women by making them strong showers could make either gender more desirable the needto shower was connected to men keeping their job by eliminating body odor as this story of thehusband who always got sacked tells showering was proposed to be an efficient way for working womento maintain Beauty a quick shower could be part of a 20-minute Beauty regime suitable for those withno particular deficits showering could prevent be oh a newly invented term for body odor this wasthen connected to success and sexual Pursuits for men they won't give you the brush off if youdon't give them the body odor showering was also proposed to lead to marriage for women flat matescould manipulate each other into showering so that.

They would be more attractive and thus get engagedshowering with garden guardian soap in particular was promoted as a possibility even for Countryfolk who lived far away from the conveniences of urban civilization a shower with Guardian soapis the finest way to start a day even out on the Range the shower showering and shower productswere thus an investment in personal capital a way to make the body more attractive and to befresher visually olfactorily and productively a way to distinguish the strong healthy moderncivilized and sexually fit from the rest of the population as Ward explained in order to attainfull membership in society one must look smell and be clean and in order to do so one had to buyand use the products that promise cleanliness in the first half of the 1900s the reinvention of theclean body as a commodity was unfolding everywhere.

In the Western World while those marketing theirshowers and soaps might have sought to induce all of the population to shower to increase salesthese discourses are also working to shape us into a particular type of person researchusing Foucault's ideas show shows us how the activities of the human and nonhuman subjectsproduce a particular type of favorable citizen a subject who is aligned with more distant governinginterests Foucault described how from the middle of the 17th century Health sex and race were usedby the middle class to distinguish themselves from the working class Works published in great numbersat the end of the 18th century on body hygiene etc attest to the correlation of this concern betweenthe body and sex to a type of racism within shower advertising this mentality was deployed to createan element of competition to induce those who can.

To shower those who cannot remain dirty unhealthysmelly unrefined and not worth reproducing with although appealing to individuals to shower sothat they may have sexual intercourse may seem distant from a governmentality that aims toproduce and maintain a middle class Foucault pointed out that revealing these connectionsshows that we are often oblivious to the history that would help us to understand whywe do what we do we are at the heart of the problematic of the Invisible Hand the kind ofbizarre mechanism which makes homoeconomicus function as an individual subject of interestwithin a totality which eludes him and with which nevertheless founds the rationality of hisegoistic choices a footnote as I'm aware these ideas sound a lot like the territory of conspiracytheorists however the work of Foucault is quite.

Different it requires us to diligently search thearchives in order to reveal the discourses that our current practices are contingent on it isnot seeking hidden meanings symbols or Sinister organizations that sit outside of accepted truthsnor does it make a claim to truth rather it aims to show how truth is constructed contested andemployed to have effect it is work that reveals the substance of historically constructed everydaypractices such as the simple Act of of showering that produce and maintain our social order giventhat for those who are interested in the power of State I would highly recommend reading Foucaultto help articulate the concerns that many of us have regarding the effects of the strategies ofgovernment ideas such as biopolitics discipline neoliberalism the dispositive rights the familyeconomics and sexuality can help us understand.

And articulate our concerns I can recommendKendell and Wickham using Foucault's methods and Rabinow and Rose's the essential Foucault asa starting point Let Us return now to showering in the mid 1900s showering came to be understood asan investment in health and health is capital an environment is fostered in which hygiene becomespersonal capital and showering produces winners in the competition to find a mate a discourse ofhygiene connects the act of showering to produce a strong attractive body which induces subjectsto make showering an everyday essential activity to be a showering subject is to be an acceptedmember of society who is able to compete with others to obtain maintain and further reproduceCapital the showers of collective confined space such as the Army Camps discussed in episode 2 aredesigned to make the showeree visible and subject.

To external discipline within the private dwellingsuch external monitoring is absent although technology such as Google's non-invasive Healthmonitoring bathroom is developing that could make this possible without external disciplinegovernmentalities that induce individuals to police themselves are Central to the emergenceof showering as an everyday essential activity in one's own home advertisements appeal toan individual entrepreneur who can compete from for advantage through investing in theirpersonal hygiene the idea of daily showering as an essential activity produces the body as anobject that is seen and smelt by others while the act of showering in a private dwelling maynot be visible the body reveals those who are unsanitary and unhygienic a failure to showerwill make a subject visible via their unhealthy.

Complexion hair and smell resulting in rejectionfrom society this connection between showering and desirability suggests that biopoliticalnormalization a governmentality that aims to standardize us and in contrast biopoliticaldisablism is also an effect if you can't shower because you can't stand and step into the showerunit you face rejection from society a 100 years ago houses with bathrooms containing showers werea rarity showering was not an everyday activity for most it was not even an occasional activityduring that 100 years ideas regarding sanitation and hygiene produced government regulationrequiring us to have bathrooms and turned us into a population that feels compelled to showerwe choose to invest time and money in showering or face rejection however the common shower unitan economical shower bath invented in the late.

1800s is only suitable for those who can stand andstep in the next episode I explore how Eugenics separated those who are not able to stand and stepinto a shower from private dwellings and how the showers of the institutions that such people livedin became the workplace of those who showered them

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